The Battle of Clifton

I decided to model the Battle of Clifton (or as some would call it the Skirmish of Clifton).  To set the scene, I will start with some slides from my PowerPoint talk on “The 45” which should be finished later this year, and I will give to raise funds for the British Military Charity “Combat Stress”.

In November 1745 the Jacobites marched into England, down the West coast through Carlisle and moving too fast to be caught by Wade’s Northern Army on the East coast.   Their intention was to head for London and they expected English Jacobites to join them.  A few did in Manchester, but in insignificant numbers. Cumberland’s Midlands Army was positioned to block them just North of Coventry, but Lord George Murray took some of his force on a diversionary move towards Wales, where there was some Jacobite support.  Cumberland marched towards Wales, but Murray swung back to rejoin the main Jacobite Army.

1 - March to Derby

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Oglethorpe’s Brigade

As a Cavalry force from Cumberland’s Midlands Army marched north to try to catch the retreating Jacobite Army, he was joined by a Cavalry Brigade from Wade’s Northern Army.

1 - Maj Gen Oglethorpe

This was commanded by Major General James Oglethorpe.  He was the Governor of Georgia, in North America and had been in UK recruiting men to serve there when the Jacobite Rising started, so he was given command of a Cavalry Brigade.

All of his portraits show him in classical half armour, striking heroic poses, however he did not live up to that image.

He did hold a Jacobite peerage and was rumoured to have travelled to Europe incognito to meet the Jacobite Marshal Keith, so this might have accounted for his lacklustre performance in the field.

 

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Cumberland’s Clifton Cavalry

I decided to model all of the units at the Battle of Clifton.   I had already made all of the Jacobite units and had also previously made the three British Cavalry Regiments which were at Clifton, but also at Culloden.   These British Cavalry Regiments can be seen below.  From front to back, three Squadrons each of 10th (Cobham’s) Dragoons and 11th (Kerr’s) Dragoons plus two Squadrons of 10th (Kingston’s) Light Horse.

1 - Culloden Cavalry

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Dismounted Jacobite Cavalry

When I created my Jacobite Cavalry I did not originally make any dismounted figures, to fight on foot, since I assumed that their primary role was as mounted scouts.  I made four small units of Jacobite Cavalry: Bagot’s Hussars, Strathallan’s Horse, Pitsligo’s Horse and Kilmarnock’s Horse Grenadiers, as seen from left to right below.  Pitsligo’s Horse have four figures and the others, two figures each.

1 - Jacobite Cavalry

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10th (Kingston’s) Light Horse

I have added the final unit to my Culloden British Army.  This is the 10th (Kingston’s) Light Horse, raised as a volunteer unit by the Duke of Kingston on Hull.   There is no print or description of their uniform, which has led to a lot of speculation as to what they wore.

15th Duke of Cumberland's Dragoons 1748

 

They were disbanded in 1746, but immediately re-raised as the 15th (Cumberland’s) Dragoons.  There is a David Morier painting of that Regiment, immediately before it was disbanded in 1748, which many have assumed was the same uniform worn by their predecessors of the 10th (Kingston’s) Light Horse.  It has green facings, cream or buff waistcoat and breeches and a green plume in their hat.

 

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Additional Jacobite Prince’s Lifeguards

When I originally modelled my Prince’s Lifeguards, I did so just as three figures.  This was my depiction of them as they were at Culloden, two figures of Lord Elcho’s Troop forming a composite Squadron with two figures of Fitzjames’ Cavalerie and one figure of Lord Balmerino’s Troop forming a composite Prince Charles’ escort troop with one figure of Fitzjames Cavalerie.

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Fitzjames Cavalerie

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The French-Irish Fitzjames Cavalerie were sent to Scotland in February 1745, but three squadrons were captured at sea by the Royal Navy and only one squadron landed.  This is shown here.

I have shown them on matched black horses, but actually all of their horses were captured and they were remounted by dismounting Pitsligo’s Horse and Kilmarnock’s Horse Grenadiers, who then formed a Jacobite foot regiment, Kilmarnock’s Footguards.

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Jacobite Cavalry

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I painted one small unit of Jacobite Cavalry when I made the Jacobite Army for Prestonpans.  This was Strathallan’s Horse, shown here.  They are converted from Strelets British Light Dragoons in Egypt.

 

 

 

I have now created the remainder of the Jacobite Cavalry.  The units were all quite small, but I have modelled them at the greatest size they reached during the Jacobite Rebellion, which was the strength that they were at the invasion of England and Falkirk.

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