I have recently received a copy of Jonathan Oates’ excellent book “The Sieges of the ’45”, published by Helion as part of their “Reason to Revolution” series. I actually ordered it several months ago, but it has only just been printed. I have probably now read it at least five times.
It has much more detail on the various sieges than more general histories of the ’45 and has inspired me to revisit my wargame troops involved in those sieges. The picture on the front cover is Carlisle, but I thought I would start with Edinburgh.
In a my recent post on Jacobite Boats (Part 1), I described how I made a dismounted ADC for the Duke of Perth. I have now decided to make one more dismounted ADC, this time the ADC for Lord George Murray.
He is shown here as a mounted figure on a Command Sabot with Lord George.
I had previously modelled a pair of Royal Navy boats, which were used by 27th Foot (Inniskillings) and a Naval Landing Party, as part of a joint operation with a pair of small Royal Navy Brigs, in their unsuccessful attempt to prevent the Jacobites ferrying their siege guns across the Forth to help besiege Stirling Castle. These can be seem here and a photo of these boats is below.
However the largest amphibious operation of the ’45 was not British but Jacobite and, unlike the British one, it was entirely successful. I wanted the model the boats for this.
My Jacobite Infantry Brigade Commanders are on foot, but all of my senior Jacobite Commanders and staff are mounted, as shown below, with from the left, an Army command sabot containing Prince Charles, Col O’Sullivan and a Standard Bearer, a Divisional command sabot containing Lord George Murray and his ADC, and another Divisional command sabot containing the Duke of Perth and his ADC.
However, at Prestonpans all of the Jacobite commanders were on foot, so I decided to model some alternative dismounted figures for these.
I decided to model the Battle of Clifton (or as some would call it the Skirmish of Clifton). To set the scene, I will start with some slides from my PowerPoint talk on “The 45” which should be finished later this year, and I will give to raise funds for the British Military Charity “Combat Stress”.
In November 1745 the Jacobites marched into England, down the West coast through Carlisle and moving too fast to be caught by Wade’s Northern Army on the East coast. Their intention was to head for London and they expected English Jacobites to join them. A few did in Manchester, but in insignificant numbers. Cumberland’s Midlands Army was positioned to block them just North of Coventry, but Lord George Murray took some of his force on a diversionary move towards Wales, where there was some Jacobite support. Cumberland marched towards Wales, but Murray swung back to rejoin the main Jacobite Army.
There were a number of feisty ladies who were passionate about the Jacobite cause. Many of these are described in Maggie Craig’s book “Damn Rebel Bitches”.
Perhaps the most famous of them was Lady Anne MacIntosh. Born Anne Farquharson, at the age of 20 she married Angus MacIntosh in 1743. He was Chief of Clan MacIntosh and the Chief of the Clan Chattan federation. In early 1744 Angus was offered command of one of the 43rd Foot (Black Watch) Additional Companies being recruited in Scotland, whilst the main battalion was overseas in Flanders. Anne rode around the Clan area and raised 97 of the 100 men needed for the company.
The Battle of Inverurie took place on 23rd December 1745. Some accounts would call it a Combat, rather than a Battle, but the effect was the same. It was the second battle on that site, since there was an earlier one in 1308. My model of the battlefield is shown below.
The “modern” Fort George is a Vauban style fortification to the north of Inverness, but this was built after the Jacobite Rebellion. In 1746, Fort George was the name given to the old medieval castle guarding the bridge to the south of Inverness. I decided I needed a Medieval castle to represent this, and explained how I created it in my last post.
The castle reverted to its original name of Inverness Castle after the Jacobite Rebellion and was considerably expanded in the 19th Century. However I found an old print of it in 1746 and realised that at that time it was mainly a keep plus curtain walls extending out along the banks of the River Ness towards the town.
All of the 19th Century extensions were built on the ground in front of the castle from this view.
I have decided to model the various forts which played a part in the Jacobite Rebellion. The first of these is Ruthven Barracks, which is in the Cairngorms, strategically placed to control the road from Perth towards either towards Inverness or Fort Augustus. Today the barracks looks like this:
The British Army had a number of troops deployed as garrisons in various fortifications in Scotland. At the start of the rebellion there were garrisons in Edinburgh Castle and Stirling Castle. There were also detachments Fort George, Fort Augustus and Fort William along the Great Glen (Loch Ness, Loch Lochy and Loch Linnhe). Finally, in early 1746, garrisons were set up in Blair Atholl Castle and Menzies Castle.
At the start of the campaign, the 6th Foot was deployed with three companies in Fort George, three in Fort Augustus and two in Fort William. One of the companies from Fort George was taken by Cope as he passed through Inverness, and that company was captured at Prestonpans. It is not clear where the other two companies were, nor where the battalion headquarters was. Presumably the Regimental Colours would have been with the headquarters, but there is no account of those being captured when the Jacobites took Fort George and Fort Augustus. I am therefore assuming that the battalion headquarters, and the missing two companies were in Stirling Castle. There were four regular companies there, two of which are unidentified, so I think were probably those of the 6th Foot.b