There was a recent discussion on the Napoleonic Discussion Message Board of TMP (The Miniatures Page) about Passage of Lines. I thought I would post an article about it on this website, and it can be viewed here (or from the Top Menu > Military Historical Research > Tactics > Passage of Lines).
I decided to model the Battle of Clifton (or as some would call it the Skirmish of Clifton). To set the scene, I will start with some slides from my PowerPoint talk on “The 45” which should be finished later this year, and I will give to raise funds for the British Military Charity “Combat Stress”.
In November 1745 the Jacobites marched into England, down the West coast through Carlisle and moving too fast to be caught by Wade’s Northern Army on the East coast. Their intention was to head for London and they expected English Jacobites to join them. A few did in Manchester, but in insignificant numbers. Cumberland’s Midlands Army was positioned to block them just North of Coventry, but Lord George Murray took some of his force on a diversionary move towards Wales, where there was some Jacobite support. Cumberland marched towards Wales, but Murray swung back to rejoin the main Jacobite Army.
As a Cavalry force from Cumberland’s Midlands Army marched north to try to catch the retreating Jacobite Army, he was joined by a Cavalry Brigade from Wade’s Northern Army.
This was commanded by Major General James Oglethorpe. He was the Governor of Georgia, in North America and had been in UK recruiting men to serve there when the Jacobite Rising started, so he was given command of a Cavalry Brigade.
All of his portraits show him in classical half armour, striking heroic poses, however he did not live up to that image.
He did hold a Jacobite peerage and was rumoured to have travelled to Europe incognito to meet the Jacobite Marshal Keith, so this might have accounted for his lacklustre performance in the field.
I have added one extra figure to my posting about Cumberland’s Clifton Cavalry, a dismounted figure of Lieutenant Colonel Sir Philip Honeywood, the Commanding Officer of the 3rd Dragoons, who commanded the combined force of three dismounted Dragoon Regiments at Clifton. The amended post is below.
I decided to model all of the units at the Battle of Clifton. I had already made all of the Jacobite units and had also previously made the three British Cavalry Regiments which were at Clifton, but also at Culloden. These British Cavalry Regiments can be seen below. From front to back, three Squadrons each of 10th (Cobham’s) Dragoons and 11th (Kerr’s) Dragoons plus two Squadrons of 10th (Kingston’s) Light Horse.
By popular demand (well, one comment actually) I have amended my Jacobite Cavalry Post to add an extra larger image of the dismounted figures. The amended post is here, immediately below this one.
When I created my Jacobite Cavalry I did not originally make any dismounted figures, to fight on foot, since I assumed that their primary role was as mounted scouts. I made four small units of Jacobite Cavalry: Bagot’s Hussars, Strathallan’s Horse, Pitsligo’s Horse and Kilmarnock’s Horse Grenadiers, as seen from left to right below. Pitsligo’s Horse have four figures and the others, two figures each.
There were a number of feisty ladies who were passionate about the Jacobite cause. Many of these are described in Maggie Craig’s book “Damn Rebel Bitches”.
Perhaps the most famous of them was Lady Anne MacIntosh. Born Anne Farquharson, at the age of 20 she married Angus MacIntosh in 1743. He was Chief of Clan MacIntosh and the Chief of the Clan Chattan federation. In early 1744 Angus was offered command of one of the 43rd Foot (Black Watch) Additional Companies being recruited in Scotland, whilst the main battalion was overseas in Flanders. Anne rode around the Clan area and raised 97 of the 100 men needed for the company.
In my recent posts I described how I created British Siege Artillery. This was only used once during the Jacobite Rebellion, at the Second Siege of Carlisle in 1745 The Jacobites had left a garrison in Carlisle when they retreated over the border back to Scotland and Cumberland brought up six 18 Pounders to besiege it from 21st to 30th December 1745.
All of these field defences and gun emplacements covered in my last post needed men to construct them. In the 18th Century the British Royal Engineers were all officers and they relied on infantry or civilians for their labour force.
I had already made two Infantry Sappers when I made my Siege Works, but now I thought I would make some more. These were originally on mud coloured bases, but I decided to change them to green.