I have added the final unit to my Culloden British Army. This is the 10th (Kingston’s) Light Horse, raised as a volunteer unit by the Duke of Kingston on Hull. There is no print or description of their uniform, which has led to a lot of speculation as to what they wore.
They were disbanded in 1746, but immediately re-raised as the 15th (Cumberland’s) Dragoons. There is a David Morier painting of that Regiment, immediately before it was disbanded in 1748, which many have assumed was the same uniform worn by their predecessors of the 10th (Kingston’s) Light Horse. It has green facings, cream or buff waistcoat and breeches and a green plume in their hat.
Well, I have finally completed my Jacobite Army, so to celebrate here is another picture of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, accompanied by Colonel O’Sullivan and his standard bearer. Bonnie Prince Charlie is a Revell Prussian mounted officer with his tricorne welded into a Scots bonnet, Colonel O’Sullivan is a Revell Austrian artillery driver and the standard bearer is a heavily converted Italeri British Napoleonic Hussar.
I have been a bit busy on other things recently, but have now completed three more battalions of Jacobite Highlanders, as can be seen above. I originally started my Jacobite Army with the units which were at Prestonpans, then expanded it to add those at Culloden. These three battalions were not at either of those battles, but were at Falkirk and several minor actions. All three have a Regimental Commander, for reasons which I will explain below. Continue reading
During the Jacobite Rebellion, the French sent detachments from their Irish Brigade to Scotland. These were formed together as a composite battalion of Irish Piquets. I decided to model the complete Irish Brigade, which I wanted anyway for my expansion into the War of Austrian Succession, then take a few figures from the various units of this to form my model of the Irish Piquets, in other words exactly what they did in 1745.
The Irish Brigade was commanded by Marshal de Camp (Major-General) Charles O’Brian, Compte (or Vicount) de Clare. He could have worn the French Marshal de Camp blue uniform, however I decided to model him in his Regiment Clare uniform, with yellow facings, but gave him a tricorne with white feathers around the edge, as worn by French Generals.
I have now added the Royal Ecossais to my 18th Century wargames armies. They are one of my favourite units, so I have been looking forward to this.
I had made one figure already, of their Regimental Colonel Lord John Drummond. He arrived in Scotland with his Regiment on 26th November 1745. The main Jacobite Army was marching south from Carlisle towards Preston at that stage. Major General Lord Strathallan had been left in command of a small number of Jacobite forces in Scotland, but Lord John Drummond was now appointed as a Jacobite Lieutenant General, so took over command of the troops in Scotland and set about raising considerably more. I modelled him wearing the Scottish version of his Royal Ecossais uniform, short jacket and blue bonnet, with a plaid slung over his left shoulder.
I have made two more small Jacobite units, both of which were at Culloden.
The first is Kilmarnock’s Foot Guards. This was formed by dismounting Kilmarnock’s Horse Grenadiers and Pitsligo’s Horse, so that their horses could be used by the only Squadron of Fitzjames’ Horse which made it to Scotland (the other three Squadrons and all of the horses of that French Regiment being captured by the Royal Navy).
Kilmarnock’s Horse Grenadiers were 50 men (modelled as two figures) and Pitsligo’s Horse 130 men (modelled as four figures). I had previously modelled these units as mounted, looking like this, with Kilmarnock’s Horse Grenadiers being on the left of the picture and Pitsligo’s Horse on the right.
The Jacobites conducted several sieges, but were hampered by the lack of suitable artillery. This was partially solved by the landing of some heavier French guns in November 1745. These comprised 2 x 8 pounders, 2 x 12 pounders and 2 x 16 pounders. I decided to model these on my standard 18th Century ratio of one model per two real guns, so just one of each calibre. I use different manufacturers models to portray guns of different calibres and mix up carriages and tubes (gun barrels) to suit as shown below:
I decided to model a 6 Pounder battery of three models guns, representing six real ones. As mentioned in my article on 18th Century Artillery, I have used model guns from different manufacturers to represent various calibres. In the Napoleonic era most nations simplified their gun carriages to a smaller number of sizes, each of which could be used for a range of calibres. However, in the 18th Century virtually every increase in calibre was accompanied by a larger gun carriage.
I had previously used IMEX AWI American Artillery pieces to represent British 3 Pounders, as shown on the left of the picture below, and I have now used the larger Revell SYW Austrian Artillery pieces to represent British 6 Pounders, as shown on the right of the picture below.
My article on Napoleonic March Rates was written 20 years ago. There was one matter which I thought needed clarification, and one which needed correction. I have therefore added an addendum at the end of the article.
I was chatting on the Napoleon Series Forum a few days ago on the subject of Napoleonic Tactical Drills. It occurred to me that I did have a chapter dealing with this in a book which I began to write some 20 years ago, but never finished.
I have updated all of the diagrams in this particular chapter and it is now published as an article, entitled “Basic Formations and Movement Drills“, within the Tactics Sub-section of the Military Historical Research Section. This may be accessed via that link or the Top Menu of my webpage.
The article covers the basic tactical structures which changed little, if at all, throughout the 17th, 18th and much of the 19th Centuries. I acknowledge that I have relied mainly, although not exclusively, on British Regulations, but all nations used very similar tactical drills at this basic level. I will publish a future article on Tactical Development during the 18th Century.