Well, I have finally finished my Jacobite Field Artillery. Their guns were either captured British ones or provided by the French. The Gunners themselves were lowlanders, mainly recruited from the Duke of Perth’s Regiment, with a small number of French Artillery providing command and technical direction. Here is a typical detachment of two model guns (representing four real guns). These guns are British 3 pounders (IMEX AWI American guns), the Jacobite crewmen are conversions from that same set, whilst the French Gunner is a conversion from a Strelets Russian Artillery of Peter I set.
The Jacobite Artillery Commander was Colonel James Grante, a French Army officer. Some sources spell his name as Grant, but “No Quarter Given – The Muster Roll of Prince Charles Edward Stuart’s Army, 1745-46” gives it as Grante, and there is a map of the route taken by the Jacobite Army, drawn by Colonel Grante, in the Royal Collection, which also spells his name as Grante, so I have used that spelling. The figure I have used to represent him is an officer from the Strelets Artillery of Peter I set. I welded the coat to make it open.
I had originally assumed that he was a French Artillery officer, but the Jacobite Muster Roll shows him as a member of the French Lally’s Regiment (the most recently raised French Irish Regiment), so I have shown him in their uniform of red coat and dark green cuffs and waistcoat. Despite being from an infantry regiment, he had made a particular study of artillery matters and was very effective in that role.
My Jacobite gunners and Artillery walking drivers have all been converted from IMEX AWI American artillerymen. Here is an original figure on the left and the conversion to a walking driver on the right. I have changed the position of the hands, welded the tricorn into a Scots bonnet and added a welded plaid across the body.
A similar conversion of the same figure has created Jacobite gunners, on the left firing a gun or mortar, and on the right holding a cannon ball. I use the latter figure only with my mortars. I have left some of the figures in shirt sleeves but most, and all of the walking drivers, have had extra plastic welded on to create short jackets.
I used a different figure from that same set as a gunner with a ramrod. The original figure was kneeling, but I cut his right leg free, bent both legs to make him standing and repositioned his ramrod.
Here are some of the figures painted. For all of my artillery, Napoleonic and 18th Century, the number of gunners represents the number of real guns. I have a total of 17 Jacobite gunners in various poses, which is enough to represent the maximum number of Jacobite Artillery guns at any one time.
Here are some more painted figures, in this case a Jacobite gunner holding a mortar shell and a walking driver. They are converted from the same figure. All of my Jacobite Artillery have welded on broadswords, whereas the walking drivers are unarmed. Many of these drivers were forcibly conscripted from carters who normally plied for trade at Leith docks.
The Jacobite Army had no Artillery at their first battle of Prestonpans, but as a result of that battle they captured all of General Cope’s Artillery and this accompanied the Jacobite Army on its march into England and back again. Here are the three models of 1½ pounder curricle guns (representing the six real guns captured at Prestonpans). These curricle guns had no limbers, but long trails which acted as shafts connected directly to their horses. My model guns are converted from IMEX AWI British Artillery pieces, with small guns from a 1:87 Airfix HMS Bounty model. My walking drivers are all designed to be slid in beside the leading train horse, so I can simply swap the original British drivers for Jacobite ones. They have one French gunner and five Jacobite gunners.
General Cope also had four 4½ inch Coehorn Mortars and two of the larger 5½ inch Royal Mortars at Prestonpans. The Jacobites captured these and they also accompanied the Army into England and back. I have represented these with two model Coehorn Mortars and one model Royal Mortar. The mortars beds are made from Wills (now Peco) model railway parcels, with lead weights added inside them, and with the mortars themselves being converted from Hät Napoleonic Prussian Howitzers (Coehorn Mortars) or Italeri Napoleonic French Guard Artillery Howitzers (Royal Mortars). The mortar carts are scratch built as described in an earlier post. These mortars were very useful, and a direct hit by one on the ammunition magazine at Fort Augustus caused that fort to surrender to the Jacobites. Here is the Jacobite Mortar Battery in action, with the larger Royal Mortar in the centre. Again they have one French gunner and five Jacobite gunners.
Shortly after Prestonpans, Colonel Grante arrived to command the Jacobite Artillery, bringing with him a number of French gunners, but also a battery of six “Swedish” 4 pounders (so called because they were based on a lightweight Swedish design). Again these six guns accompanied the Jacobite Army into England and back. I have shown them as three models, and they are the same ones which I described in my earlier post on French War of Austrian Succession Artillery. I am not sure whether the French provided train horses, but they certainly provided horses for Fitzjames Cavallerie, although these were captured by the Royal Navy. I am sure that the French would have provided a minimum of limbers and train horse furniture, so I have just used the complete French train horses and limbers, but with Jacobite walking drivers replacing the original French ones. Again I have shown these with one French gunner and five Jacobite gunners.
None of this artillery saw any action during the march into England and back, and the 1½ pounder Curricle Guns were abandoned at Carlisle on the way back to Scotland. However the French “Swedish” 4 pounders were used very effectively in January 1746, to drive off a Royal Navy flotilla, which was trying to prevent the newly landed Jacobite Siege Artillery train from crossing the Firth of Forth at Alloa. Here they are in action below, commanded by Colonel Grante.
There was one additional artillery piece which accompanied the Jacobite Army on its march into England. This had an unusual octagon profile to its long brass barrel and is described as an antique French piece. I believe it was probably a 16th Century French Falcon, like the one in a Portuguese museum described below.
I modelled this by scratch building a barrel from a square section piece of sprue, with the corners chamfered down to make it an octagon profile.
I mounted this on a really small IMEX AWI British Artillery carriage (I originally had four of these, and had used the other three to make 1½ pounder curricle guns). I have shown it here with a two man crew, but since the Jacobites really only had one of these unusual guns, I probably ought to show it with just a single artilleryman.
Colonel Grante was injured at the Siege of Fort William, so the Jacobite Artillery at Culloden was commanded by Captain John Findlayson, an Edinburgh instrument maker who had studied artillery and volunteered to join the Jacobite Army immediately after Prestonpans. I modelled him from a figure from the Strelets Artillery of Peter I set. The figure is looking through a sextant like instrument, which I though was appropriate for Findlayson. The original figure was hatless, so I added a welded on Scots bonnet.
I painted him in a green civilian coat and added a welded tartan plaid. All of my Jacobite artillerymen have Royal Stuart tartan plaids, since I have assumed that they would have been purchased and issued in bulk. I have assumed that the drivers would have had to provide their own, so they are a complete mixture of tartans.
Finally here is the Jacobite Artillery at Culloden. They really had eleven British 3 pounders (seven captured at the Battle of Falkirk and the other four acquired either from Fort George or Fort Augustus). They also had one French “Swedish” 4 pounder. I have represented these twelve guns as five model 3 pounders and one model 4 pounder (the latter on the right of the picture). They are crewed by three French gunners and nine Jacobite gunners. I have shown them here in an approximation of their layout at Culloden, as four small batteries, two of a single model (representing two guns each), and two of two models (representing four guns each), with Captain Findlayson in the centre. The batteries would really have had more space between them.